Volume 5 Issue 3 July 2023 - LITERARY DRUID - LITERARY DRUID

Volume- 5, Issue- 3, July-2023

1. An Introduction to Indian Writing in English 

Dr. (Mrs) S. Kesavan, Head & Hindu Civilization, Senior Lecturer Gr-1, Faculty of Arts and Culture, Eastern University, Sri Lanka.

Dr. D. Maheswari, President, Pandian Educational Trust, Virudhunagar, Tamil Nadu, India.


Indian Writing in English (IWE) refers to the body of literary works written by Indian authors in the English language. Indian Writing in English emerged during the period of British colonization in India and has since developed into a rich and diverse tradition. This essay explores the origins, themes, and significant contributions of Indian Writing in English. It delves into the challenges faced by Indian authors in adopting a foreign language for creative expression, examines the cultural and social contexts in which these works are situated, and highlights the impact of IWE on the global literary landscape. The essay also discusses the influence of prominent Indian authors such as R.K. Narayan, Arundhati Roy, and Salman Rushdie. Indian Writing in English has emerged as a dynamic literary genre that embodies the complexities of a multicultural and diverse society. This essay explores the evolution, significance, and impact of IWE in capturing the intricacies of Indian culture, society, and identity. It delves into the historical context, major themes, and prominent authors within IWE, while highlighting its role as a mirror to societal transformations, a bridge between cultures, and a vehicle for social commentary. By examining the diverse narratives and innovative expressions within IWE, this essay emphasizes its contribution to the global literary landscape and its ability to inspire cross-cultural conversations.

Keywords: Indian Writing in English, Colonization, Cultural Identity, Postcolonialism.

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2. Exploration of Ideal State and Just Governance in Plato's "Republic" 

Mr. M. Pandiyaraja, Guest Lecturer in English, Department of English, Government Arts and Science College, Nagalapuram, Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu, India.

Ms. Punitha Subramaniam, Head Master, SJKT Ladang Allagar, 34800 Trong, Perak, Malaysia.


Plato's "Republic" is a timeless philosophical masterpiece that delves into the nature of justice, the structure of an ideal society, and the role of education in shaping individuals and communities. Written around 380 BCE, this Socratic dialogue is a profound exploration of political philosophy, ethics, and metaphysics. This essay provides a comprehensive analysis of the key themes, concepts, and arguments presented in the "Republic," emphasizing the allegory of the cave, the tripartite soul theory, and the theory of the philosopher-king. Through a meticulous examination of the text and relevant secondary sources, the essay showcases how Plato's ideas continue to influence discussions about governance, justice, and the pursuit of wisdom. Plato's "Republic" is more than a mere treatise on justice and governance; it is a complex political allegory that conceals profound insights about human nature, society, and the pursuit of truth. Written as a Socratic dialogue, this work utilizes allegorical elements to convey deeper meanings that extend beyond the literal narrative. This article delves into the allegorical nature of the "Republic," exploring how its characters, settings, and concepts symbolize broader philosophical ideas. Through an analysis of key allegorical components, including the divided line and the allegory of the cave, this essay uncovers the hidden realities embedded in Plato's magnum opus.

Keywords: Plato, Republic, Justice, Ideal Society, Philosopher-King, Politics, Philosophy.

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3. On A Culture that Communicates: An Ethnographic Study of Haryana’s Traditional Food ‘Raabdi’

Dr. Preeti Patanjali, Assistant Professor, Guru TeghBahadur Institute of Technology, Indraprastha University Delhi.


India is a vault of diverse cultures, languages, rituals and traditions. Every state has its own ethnic individuality evident in its material and non-material culture, viz. food, clothes, jewellery, customs, etc. Primitively, food is a basic biological necessity for sustenance, but, symbolically, it is enmeshed with varied connotations that are, more or less, indicative of a specific ethnicity. Thus, the present research study would closely look at ‘raabdi’, the traditional food of Haryana, to bring forth the semiotic and symbolic implications in terms of social, regional and cultural dimensions. It would also examine its transition with time and its contemporary relevance in the regions of Haryana. Moreover, it would analyse the myths and folktales associated with this traditional food that plays an indispensable role in making it a part of Haryana’s culture.

KeywordsRaabdi, Food, Social Identity, Cultuure, Ethnicity, Haryana.

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4. Beowulf as an Epic Tale of Heroism, Valor, and Legacy 

Dr. G. Rajesh KumarAssistant Professor, Department of English, Directorate of Distance Education, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai.


This article explores “Beowulf” as an epic, delving into its prominent characteristics, including its heroic protagonist, the portrayal of larger-than-life conflicts, and its enduring legacy. The work draws upon scholarly analysis and critical interpretations to examine the significance of Beowulf within the context of epic literature. Through an in-depth exploration of Beowulf's plot, themes, and characters, this article demonstrates the epic qualities that have secured its place in the literary canon. The article focuses on analyzing the renowned Old English epic poem, ‘Beowulf”. It explores the themes of heroism, valour, and the lasting impact of one's deeds. Through a detailed examination of the narrative structure, character development, and historical context, this article seeks to shed light on the significance and enduring popularity of “Beowulf” as a legendary tale. Moreover, the theme of valour depicted throughout “Beowulf” emphasizes the importance of honour, loyalty, and bravery. Whether it is Beowulf's renowned fighting skills or his loyal followers' unwavering support, the poem teaches us that valour is a quality that drives individuals to display immense courage and character when faced with adversity. This virtue resonates with readers, as it exemplifies the timeless values of courage and personal sacrifice that continue to hold relevance in modern society. “Beowulf” remains a timeless epic tale that embodies the ideals of heroism, valour, and the enduring legacy left by great warriors. The poem's narrative structure, with its battles against mythical creatures and exploration of human strength and weaknesses, captures the essence of heroism. Beowulf's unwavering bravery, his willingness to sacrifice for his people, and his triumph over evil serve as an inspiration to the people even centuries after its conception.

Keywords: Beowulf, Epic, Hero, Valour, Conflict, Legacy.

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5. A Psychological Analysis of Exploring Stream of Consciousness and Identity Formation in James Joyce’s "Ulysses" 

Dr. V. Vasantha Kumar, Assistant Professor of English, Sourashtra College (Autonomous), Madurai.

Dr. Muthmainnah, Assistant Professor of Education, Universitas Al Asyariah Mandar, Indonesia.


This research paper employs a psychological approach to analyze James Joyce's groundbreaking novel, "Ulysses." By focusing on the concepts of stream of consciousness and identity formation, this paper aims to explore the intricate psychological landscapes and character development depicted in the novel. Drawing on relevant theories and concepts from psychology, including Freudian psychoanalysis and Erikson's psychosocial theory, this analysis delves into the complex inner workings of the characters' minds, their struggles with identity, and the psychological motifs present throughout the narrative. Through this examination, we gain a deeper understanding of the psychological dimensions of Joyce's masterpiece and its implications for the human condition. The study is a comprehensive psychological analysis of James Joyce's seminal work "Ulysses," focusing on the intricate interplay between the narrative technique of stream of consciousness and the theme of identity formation. By examining the internal monologues and thought processes of the central characters, Leopold Bloom and Stephen Dedalus, the article explores how the stream of consciousness technique unveils the complexities of their identities. Drawing on Freudian and Jungian theories of psychology, the analysis delves into the character's subconscious desires, fears, and memories, shedding light on their struggles with self-discovery and the shaping influences of societal norms. Through this exploration, the article highlights how Joyce's masterful use of stream of consciousness transcends mere literary technique, becoming a psychological tool that mirrors the intricacies of the human mind and its role in constructing one's sense of self.

Keywords: Exploration, Stream of Consciousness, Identity, James Joyce, "Ulysses".

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6. Daily Paris (Poem) 

Pilar Osorio Lora, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Colegio de Estudios Superiores de Administración, CESA (Colombia)


"Daily Paris" is Pilar Osorio’s first English published poem; it was written in a poetry class with Martín Espada. The poem explores alienation and frustration in the middle of relationship’s crisis; it begins with an idyllic scene, but the tone shifts dramatically when the speaker wakes up in noisy Paris, resenting their partner snoring next to them. The Paris portrayed in the poem, far from the cliché, becomes overwhelming and suffocates the speaker. In the city of light, the speaker is unable to communicate; she is always stuck in her "Mierda" (meaning "shit" in Spanish). The poem delves into the speaker's reflections and judgments. They consider themselves a judge, observing and critiquing various aspects of French society, their own prejudices, and their Colombian roots. The poem is a reality check on love and Paris and aims to be radically honest on the speaker's sense of self, fears, anger and vulnerability. The poem evokes literary references, mentioning la Maga (a character from Julio Cortázar's novel "Hopscotch"), living a season in hell (referring to Arthur Rimbaud's work), and the spleen (a motif in Charles Baudelaire's poetry).

KeywordsPilar Osorio, Poem, Daily Paris, Modernity, Alienation, Frustration.

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7. The Poetry of T. V. Reddy - A Critical Study of Humanistic Concerns (Book Review)

Edited By Dr. Laxmiprasad

Reviewed by Dr. Purabi Goswami, Lecturer in English, Handique Girls College, Guwahati-781001, Assam, India.


This book review is an anthology of critical essays on the select poems written by T. V. Reddy and edited by Dr. P. V. Laxmiprasad. In the preface of the edited book, Dr. P.V.Laxmiprasad offers a brief historical analysis of the origin and characteristics of Indian English Poetry. After the introduction of the poets from the pre-independent and post-independent eras, the editor places T.V. Reddy among the contemporary Indian poets like D.H. Kabadi, I.K. Sharma, I.H. Rizvi, T.V. Reddy, DC Chambial, PCK Prem, R.K. Bhushan, R.K. Singh and others. The matter that differentiates Reddy from the other poets is his deep emphasis on Indian rural life. In particular, he is very much rooted in his origins. As an eminent poet, T.V. Reddy covers a wide range of day-to-day issues in his poems spanning from personal to social walks of life. The book contains thirty research papers written by scholars across India and has been reviewed by Dr.Purabi Goswami.

Keywords: T. V. Reddy, Indianness, Dr. Laxmiprasad, Dr. Purabi Goswami.

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